Today, we are going to look at perfective infinitives. Perfective infinitives use “have + (past participle).” The perfective infinitive uses the following structures:
- １．(verb) + to have + (past participle)
- ２．be + (adjective) to have + (past participle)
- ３．(modal) + have + (past participle)
The first structure is often used to talk about past situations that did not happen. In these sentences, we use verbs like “want,” “hope,” “claim,” “like,” “prefer” and “pretend.” For example:
・ We expected to have saved up enough money by now, but we still have a long way to go.
・He claimed to have been stuck on the train, but actually he just overslept.
We can also use the first structure to talk about something that we will do in the future.
・She hopes to have gotten her driver’s license by next month.
・We expect to have finalized the budget by the end of the meeting.
The first structure is sometimes used with verbs like “seem” and “appear” to sound more polite about a past event.
・He appears to have forgotten his cellphone.