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英会話イーオン Presents Ian先生のやさしい Grammar Lesson

2019.2.22 Issue:‘Perfective infinitives’

Today, we are going to look at perfective infinitives. Perfective infinitives use “have + (past participle).” The perfective infinitive uses the following structures:

  1. 1.(verb) + to have + (past participle)
  2. 2.be + (adjective) to have + (past participle)
  3. 3.(modal) + have + (past participle)


The first structure is often used to talk about past situations that did not happen. In these sentences, we use verbs like “want,” “hope,” “claim,” “like,” “prefer” and “pretend.” For example:

・I would like to have taken a vacation, but I have too much work to do. 
・ We expected to have saved up enough money by now, but we still have a long way to go. 
・He claimed to have been stuck on the train, but actually he just overslept.

 

We can also use the first structure to talk about something that we will do in the future.

・I plan to have graduated from college by the time I turn 25.
・She hopes to have gotten her driver’s license by next month.
・We expect to have finalized the budget by the end of the meeting.

 

The first structure is sometimes used with verbs like “seem” and “appear” to sound more polite about a past event.

She seems to have left already.
・He appears to have forgotten his cellphone.

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Ian Fogelman
イアン・フォゲルマン

英会話イーオン東京本社教務課コーディネーター。イーオン教師のトレーニングや英語セミナーを企画制作するカリスマ教師として活躍中。カリフォルニア大学バークレー校卒業。趣味は読書、料理、クラフトワーク。

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